Three characteristics of acute myocardial infarction

Date: 2018-11-05
Times of browsing: 28

What is acute myocardial infarction?

Acute myocardial infarction is myocardial necrosis caused by acute and persistent ischemia and anoxia. There are severe and lasting retrosternal pain, rest and nitrate drugs can not completely relieve, accompanied by increased serum myocardial enzyme activity and progressive electrocardiogram changes, can be complicated with arrhythmia, shock or heart failure, often life-threatening.

The disease is most common in Europe and the United States. About 1 million 500 thousand people in the United States suffer from myocardial infarction every year. In recent years, China has seen an obvious upward trend, with at least 500 thousand new annual development and at least 2 million.

Studies have shown that acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is one of the most serious cardiovascular diseases in clinic. Careful analysis of its incidence regularity shows that it occurs more frequently in winter in one year and in the morning in one day. This rule is also considered to be the "devil's time" in the pathogenesis of acute myocardial infarction.

Experts warn that the causes of this seasonal and chronological regularity are simply the reflection of the harmony of man and nature in human physiological activities. Cold weather makes human sympathetic nerve excitation, small blood vessel contraction, blood pressure increase, heart rate accelerate, and blood fibrinogen increase, fibrinolytic activity decline and in a state of high coagulation and low solubility. At the same time, platelet aggregation and blood viscosity increase, which are easy to form arterial thrombosis. In the morning, due to the biological clock effect, as the sun rises, the brain begins to think actively, the sympathetic nerve tension increases, the concentration of adrenaline, catecholamine and corticosteroids in the blood increases, so that the coronary artery contraction, myocardial blood supply decreases, the heartbeat speeds up, and myocardial oxygen consumption increases.

Precursors of acute myocardial infarction

About half of patients with acute myocardial infarction have prodromal symptoms 1-2 days or 1-2 weeks before onset. The most common symptoms are aggravation of original angina pectoris, prolongation of attack time, worse effect on nitroglycerin or subsequent absence of angina pectoris, and sudden long-term angina pectoris.

1. Digestive tract symptomsAbout 30% of patients with acute myocardial infarction have gastrointestinal symptoms, such as abdominal flatulence, hiccup, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and so on. The main reason is that heart disease stimulates the vagus nerve or lesion in the lower wall of the heart and causes gastrointestinal reaction. It is easily misdiagnosed as dyspepsia and acute gastroenteritis.

2. Respiratory symptoms

Some patients with acute myocardial infarction only feel chest tightness, suffocation or think that their breath is insufficient. The main reason is that when acute myocardial infarction occurs, myocardial contractility decreases, cardiac output decreases, resulting in pulmonary congestion and bronchial infection. It is easily misdiagnosed as pulmonary heart disease.

3. Neuropsychiatric symptoms

Some patients with acute myocardial infarction are characterized by sudden speech confusion, paralysis of one limb, unconsciousness and convulsions. The main reason is that when acute myocardial infarction occurs, cardiac output drops sharply, resulting in insufficient cerebral blood supply, especially in the elderly with original cerebral arteriosclerosis, cerebral circulation disorders are more likely to occur. It is easily misdiagnosed as cerebrovascular disease.

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